In the new study, the team, including a group of Penn State undergraduates led by graduate student Boya Xiong, packed the sticky sand into filter columns about 1 cm in diameter and 5-10 cm high, and testing the columns with extract from different amounts of seed to optimize performance. In experiments with 1-µm-diameter polystyrene particles, which have about the same size and charge as bacteria, they found that the sticky sand caught 99.99% of particles, compared with 13.55% for sand alone. The sticky sand also removed 108 viable E. coli cells per milliliter. They estimate that a household-scale filter 1 meter tall and 5 cm in diameter that provides 10 L of water per day would require 0.2 kg of seeds per year, whereas a Moringa tree produces about 480 kg of seeds per year.
Tropical tree seeds provide sustainable water filtration | Chemical & Engineering News
Raised or lowered islands depending on your environment. Remember to manage for overflow and select plants accordingly so that roots don’t rot. Don’t forget to plant out those edges and where applicable channel water into or around your islands.
Bonsai Soil Tests: Part 1: Water Retention
Retention Values (g @ %) given after 5.25-hour
Rank given for 24-hour Retention based on values.
1. Coconut Coir: 129g @ 14.57% loss
2. Pine Bark: 22g @ 14.86% loss
3. Compost: 26g @ 31.58% loss
4. Commercial Peat Moss: 6g @ 40% loss
1. Diatomaceous Earth: 37g @ 30.19% loss
2. Akadama: 22g @ 26.67% loss
3. Pumice: 22g @ 29.03% loss
4. LECA (Turface): 30g @ 36.17% loss
5. Vermiculite: 28g @ 41.67% loss
6. Perlite: 14g @ 36.36% loss
7. Sand: 12g @ 67.56% loss
8. Lava Rock (Scoria): 4g @ 76.47% loss
9. Expanded Shale: 2g @ 84.62% loss
10. Granite Chips: 1g @ 94.44% loss
Quick Correction: Diatomaceous earth is not calcined clay, like Oil-Dri. It is silica based, formed from fossilized algae.
Cosechando Agua – Harvesting water
Waterway Design – Part I
A Tale of Three Watering Cans, From Lame to Excellent
Surface Water Dependent Properties of Sulfur-Rich Molybdenum Sulfides: Electrolyteless Gas Phase Water Splitting – ACS Nano (ACS Publications)
Just add a fuel cell and you’ve got gas and electricity.
Brad Lancaster discusses water harvesting and Zephaniah Phiri’s observations.