INDIGENOUS SAMI TREE TRADITIONS – WOODLANDERS

WOODLANDERS EP.13: INDIGENOUS SAMI TREE TRADITIONS from Costa on Vimeo.

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Food is not just the sum of its nutrients.

The nutritional value of a food should be evaluated on the basis of the foodstuff as a whole, and not as an effect of the individual nutrients. This is the conclusion of an international expert panel of epidemiologists, physicians, food and nutrition scientists.

“Researchers have become more skilful over the years, and we have acquired more methods for exploring what specific nutrients mean for digestion and health,” Tanja continues “But when we eat, we do not consume individual nutrients. We eat the whole food. Either alone or together with other foods in a meal. It therefore seems obvious that we should assess food products in context.”

Ultimately this means that the composition of a food can alter the properties of the nutrients contained within it, in ways that cannot be predicted on the basis of an analysis of the individual nutrients.

Tanja Kongerslev Thorning explains further “An example is almonds, which contain a lot of fat, but which release less fat than expected during digestion. Even when chewed really well. The effects on health of a food item are probably a combination of the relationship between its nutrients, and also of the methods used in its preparation or production. This means that some foods may be better for us, or less healthy, than is currently believed.”

Food is not just the sum of its nutrients. – University of Copenhagen

I wish more scientists thought like this and considered the entire living ecosystem that is our food, including the microbes they often contain. Instead we get studies that tell us the best way to cook that measure “nutritional value” like this one on mushrooms:

Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition: Vol 68, No 3

Is Raw Food Alive?

Keep in mind watching this that our stomachs produce gastric acids and other compounds that help digest food along with our fermenting microbial friends. And that heating can change the chemical structure of foods trading one thing for another, for better or worse, and more often than not it’s probably the latter. Cooking also leaches or evaporates a certain amount of nutrients. However like drying food, cooking can also concentrate nutrient in the portions we eat due to reduced water content. Food is complicated.

What the video doesn’t cover however is that raw food surfaces are also covered in living microorganisms that studies have shown don’t completely wash off, even after sterilisation attempts. Endophytes also live inside plants and may contribute to the digestive microbiome. One study mentioned by Christopher Lowry below showed spinach has over 800 endophyte species. Cooking not only kills the plants but also these microorganisms that may be acting as probiotics.

Breeding to Restore Tomato Flavour

“We wanted to identify why modern tomato varieties are deficient in those flavor chemicals,” Klee said. “It’s because they have lost the more desirable alleles of a number of genes.”

Scientists then identified the locations of the good alleles in the tomato genome, he said. That required what’s called a genome-wide assessment study. There, scientists mapped genes that control synthesis of all the important chemicals. Once they found them, they used genetic analysis to replace bad alleles in modern tomato varieties with the good alleles, Klee said.

Because breeding takes time, and the scientists are studying five or more genes, Klee said the genetic traits from his latest study may take three to four years to produce in new tomato varieties.

This technique involves classical genetics, not genetic modification. “We can make the supermarket tomato taste noticeably better.”

UF-led team discovers key to restoring great tomato flavor