Sand & Moringa Seed Water Filter Removes Bacteria

In the new study, the team, including a group of Penn State undergraduates led by graduate student Boya Xiong, packed the sticky sand into filter columns about 1 cm in diameter and 5-10 cm high, and testing the columns with extract from different amounts of seed to optimize performance. In experiments with 1-µm-diameter polystyrene particles, which have about the same size and charge as bacteria, they found that the sticky sand caught 99.99% of particles, compared with 13.55% for sand alone. The sticky sand also removed 108 viable E. coli cells per milliliter. They estimate that a household-scale filter 1 meter tall and 5 cm in diameter that provides 10 L of water per day would require 0.2 kg of seeds per year, whereas a Moringa tree produces about 480 kg of seeds per year.

Tropical tree seeds provide sustainable water filtration | Chemical & Engineering News

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Appropriate Tools And Technology For Emerging Small-Scale Market Gardeners

[Rant] Black tarps are not like putting on straw, extended use of tarping or plastic mulch changes the ecology, studies have shown the plastic mulch leads to plant disease pressure and pest pressure. Tarping and leaving soil fallow halves the fungi population every month covered, in particular mycorrhizal fungi that require host plants for the carbon they provide. Without these fungi that sequester carbon more compost is needed or the fungi become predators competing for the carbon and will infect plants and cause diseases to get that carbon. [/Rant]