Why friendships are the most important part of permaculture, activism, and being

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Agroforestry in temperate regions – Do trees affect yield?

In this brief talk trees impacted adjacent wheat field yield all the way out to about 20m from the tree line. Approximately 15% yield reduction alone was likely from trees shading the wheat. The rest up to 85% close to the trees likely being as a result of soil moisture and root competition below 20cm.